An initial 29 men will take to Surrey next Sunday for a five-day training camp which kicks off preparations for the 2019 Japan showpiece.
The Pennyhill Park meet-up precedes a second camp from June 30 to July 4, after which Jones will name his official training squad – three days before the start of the World Cup.
Former skipper Robshaw and scrum-half Care, who boast 66 and 84 caps respectively, are the big-name absentees in the Australian’s initial list.
Four uncapped players are in the squad, as Jones looks to blood some younger talent.
Those players are Bath wing Ruaridh McConnochie, Gloucester’s Georgia-born prop Val Rapava Ruskin, Northampton flanker Lewis Ludlam and Harlequins back-row forward Alex Dombrandt.
Apart from Rapava Ruskin and Ludlam, players from clubs involved in the Gallagher Premiership semi-finals – Saracens, Exeter, Gloucester and Northampton – will not feature at this stage due to a mandatory five-week rest period.
The pair, plus a small number involved for an England XV against the Barbarians on June 2, will be managed to ensure post-season active rest periods are fulfilled in agreement with Premiership Rugby and the Rugby Players’ Association.
Robshaw captained England at the last World Cup, which ended in disappointment on home soil, but has not featured in Jones’ side for the last year.
Care, meanwhile, was not selected for the Six Nations, in which England finished second behind Wales.
Nathan Hughes also misses out while Northampton hooker Dylan Hartley, who is struggling with a knee injury, is one a few Northampton and Gloucester players who could join at a later date.
Adding to the announcement, Jones said: “The first two England training camps are designed to improve individual players’ fundamentals to allow them to compete for a place in the Rugby World Cup squad.”
England’s preliminary training squad
Dan Cole (Leicester Tigers), Tom Curry (Sale Sharks), Alex Dombrandt (Harlequins), Tom Dunn (Bath), Charlie Ewels (Bath), Ellis Genge (Leicester Tigers), Joe Launchbury (Wasps), Lewis Ludlam (Northampton Saints), Val Rapava Ruskin (Gloucester), Nick Schonert (Worcester Warriors), Brad Shields (Wasps), Kyle Sinckler (Harlequins), Jack Singleton (Worcester Warriors), Sam Underhill (Bath), Mark Wilson (Newcastle Falcons).
Chris Ashton (Sale Sharks), Mike Brown (Harlequins), Joe Cokanasiga (Bath), Elliot Daly (Wasps), George Ford (Leicester Tigers), Jonathan Joseph (Bath), Jonny May (Leicester Tigers), Ruaridh McConnochie (Bath), Dan Robson (Wasps), Marcus Smith (Harlequins), Ben Te’o (Worcester Warriors), Man Tuilagi (Leicester Tigers), Anthony Watson (Bath), Ben Youngs (Leicester Tigers).